The field of cosmetic surgery is constantly advancing with new technologies in medical science, equipment, and technique. At Galenia Plastic Center quality results, safe procedures and fast recovery are the focus, and there's no more beautiful destination to do it in than Cancun. Finding youth and beauty isn't the only reason why thousands of men and women decide to have a cosmetic surgery procedure these days. Job competition, self-satisfaction and self-esteem are also important deciding factors, and with the wealth of modern, state-of-the-art tools, techniques and services available today, it's no wonder why the field continues to grow.
Who doesn't want scarless and beautiful body and face? Our cosmetic surgery hospitals and clinics provide world class cosmetic/plastic surgery treatments to enhance your beauty and well-being which gives natural beauty instead of plastic outcome. We provide all kinds of cosmetic/plastic surgery treatments such as:
|Brow Lift surgery|
|Aesthetic Nose Surgery/ Rhinoplasty|
Breat enhacement procedures:
|Female Breast Reduction (Mammoplasty)|
|Male Breast Reduction (Gynecomastia)|
Improving your physical appearance is our goal, and we strive to offer individualized and personalized service to meet your dreams and aspirations. As specialists in the field of cosmetic surgery, doctors at Galenia Plastic Center are dedicated to intensive and comprehensive medical training and our staff support professional ethics, humanitarian service, and high ideals in the field of cosmetic and plastic surgery in order to improve quality of life.
Our medical staff is board-certified or board-eligible. Our physicians have been features the highest levels of sophistication in the different specialties. We offer quality service and fully bilingual personnel, experience and know-how with state-of-the-art medical equipment with the latest technology.
Your Doctor will recommend a recovery time in the hospital or give you further instructions on how to go through the next days in your hotel and when to come back for further checks.
Your Health Ambassador will get all needed pharmacy shopping done. He will help you through the recovery process.
The only thing you have to do is to get better.
Date of Birth: April 19, 1957
1981, Physician, granted for Universidad Nacional de La Plata – Facultad de Medicina – (La Plata National University – School of Medicine – 1981).
February 1989, Specialist in Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, granted by the Mexican Board of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery A.C.
February to May 1981, Argentina, visiting Physician in the Interzonal Hospital Children's specialized Acute "Sor Maria Ludovica".
June 1st 1981 to June 30 1982. Argentina, Scholarship for Clinical and Surgical training at the Interzonal Hospital Children's specialized Acute "Sor Maria Ludovica". Scholarship granted for the Human Resources Sub-Area and the Ministry of Public Health and the Ministry of the Environment of the Nation.
August 19th 1982 to September 30 1982. Argentina, Concurrent Physician in Children's Surgery Specialty at the Interzonal Hospital Children's specialized Acute "Sor Maria Ludovica".
October 1st 1982 to June 1985. Argentina, Interim Medical Assistant in Plastic and Reconstructive and Burned Surgery Specialty in the Interzonal Hospital Children's specialized Acute "Sor Maria Ludovica".
March 1st 1981 to May 31 1983, Argentina, Weekly Guard in the Surgery Service at the Interzonal Hospital Children's specialized Acute "Sor Maria Ludovica" from as visiting Physician, Scholar, Concurrent and Interim Assistant during the previous activities.
July 1st 1985 to February 28 1986, México D.F., Assistant Physician in the Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery at the General Hospital Dr. Manuel Gea González.
March 1st 1986 to February 28 1989, México D.F., Resident Physician in the Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery Specialty joint to the Superior Studies Division of the Medicine Faculty of the Universidad Autónoma de México.
March 1989 to March 1990, México D.F., "Fellow" in Advanced Techniques in Plastic Surgery, in the Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery Division at the General Hospital Dr. Manuel Gea Gonzalez.
December 15, 1990 to October 15, 1994, México D.F., Staff Physician in the Plastic and Reconstructive Specialty, at the Regional Dr. Adolfo Lopez Mateos Hospital, belonging to ISSSTE.
Private Practice from 1989 to date.
1st Re-certification February 1995.
2nd Re-certification February 2000.
3rd Re-certification February 2005.
4th Re-certification February 2010.
President of the College of Aesthetic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgeons of Quintana Roo A.C. since 2010 to 2014.
Member of the Association of Residents and ex-Residents Dr. Fernando Ortiz Monasterio.
Member of the Mexican Association of Plastic, Aesthetic and Reconstructive AC.
Member of the ISAPS.
Founding member of the Association of Aesthetic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgeons of Quintana Roo AC.
Certified Aesthetic and Plastic Surgeon in Cancun, Mexico.
Expert in cosmetic surgery in Mexico.
Cirugía plástica en Cancun
Native from the city of Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico, Doctor Marco Carmona studied medicine at the Independent University of Nuevo Leon. He obtained the specialty in general surgery, peripheral vascular and laparoscopy at the university’s hospital, "Dr. Jose Eleuterio Gonzalez". Subsequently he coursed the specialty in plastic and reconstructive surgery at the prestigious "Jaliciense Institute of reconstructive surgery", "Dr. Jose Guerrero Santos", certified by the Mexican board of plastic, cosmetic and reconstructive surgery, and a member of the Mexican Association of Plastic Surgery which has been highlighted for participating in altruistic conferences as well as national and international courses and congresses.
Currently Dr. Carmona conducts his practice in Cancun, Playa del Carmen, Cozumel and Tulum in the state of Quintana Roo, Mexico, focusing in international medical tourism, mainly from Canada, the United States and England, passionate of his profession, altruistic, perfectionist, available to his patients 24 hours a day, Dr. Carmona enjoys recognition in the world of plastic surgery, which have placed him in the well-earned place as the most requested plastic surgeon in Cancún, for his high reputation, honesty, and deep sense of professional ethics.
Medical Doctor Instruction: Nuevo León University ( UANL )
Internship: University Hospital ( UANL )
Social Service: Allende Nuevo León
General Surgery: University Hospital ( UANL)
Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery: Dr. José Guerrero Santos Hospital
The doctor has an academic Title of Cirujano Plástico, Estético y Reconstructivo.
Place of study: Médico Cirujano at the Universidad Autónoma de Yucatán.
Participated in advanced intensive classes in English at the Marin Community College en San Francisco California.
Master in Cirugía General at the Hospital Juárez de México de la SSA.
Master in Cirugía Plástica, Estética y Reconstructiva at the Centro Médico Nacional "20 de Noviembre" of the ISSSTE.
1996- 2013 Consulta Privada en Cancún Quintana Roo. Cirugía Plástica , Estética y Reconstructiva. Atención personalizada (Cirugías de aumento mamario y gluteos, mediante colocación de implantes, cirugías de contorno corporal mediante liposucción y abdominoplastias, Cirugías faciales mediante correcciones palpebrales y ritidectomías, asi como rinoplastias.
Atención de urgencias ( lesiones tendinosas, arteriales y nerviosas en mano y extremidad superior. Quemaduras, fosas nasales, mordeduras humanas y caninas, heridas cortantes y contusocortantes por agresiones por arma blanca, etc.)
Hospital General de la SSA. Cancún. Q. Roo: Cirujano Plástico y Reconstructivo subrogado.
Hospital Regional No. 3 IMSS Cancún Q. Roo. Tipo de puesto: Especialista en Cirugía Plástica y Reconstructiva.
Hospital AMAT. Cancún. Q. Roo: Atención de Cirugía Estética y de Urgencias (trauma facial, Fosas. nasales, De órbita, mandíbula, etc) Reconstrucciones tendinosas, vasculares y de nervio periférico con TECNICA MICROQUIRURGICA.
Taller de Labio y Paladar Hendido en el INSTITUTO NACIONAL DE PEDIATRIA.
1er Taller Internacional en MICROCIRUGIA RECONSTRUCTIVA. Avalado por la Asociación Mexicana del Hospital AMERICAN BRITISH COWDRAY.
1997 Certificación por el CONSEJO MEXICANO DE CIRUGIA PLASTICA Y RECONSTRUCTIVA (N° 876)
Constancia de Asistencia CONGRESO MEXICANO DE CIRUGIA PLASTICA, ESTETICA Y RECONSTRUCTIVA.
Constancia Curso Taller MICROCIRUGIA por la UNAM
Constancia VI Curso Internacional Ritidectomia y Procedimientos Auxiliares.
Curso de Taller de Implantes de Glúteos. (Merída Yucatán)
Curso Taller AUMENTO MAMARIO CON IMPLANTES ANATOMICOS.
Constancia de Asistencia al XXXIV CONGRESO NACIONAL DE LA ASOCIACION MEXICANA DE CIRUGIA PLASTICA, ESTETICA Y RECONSTRUCTIVA.
Curso Precongreso "CURSO TALLER DE BOTOX AVANZADO" en la Ciudad de Monterrey N.L.
Curso Precongreso "FACTURAS DE ORBITA".
"XXXV CONGRESO NACIONAL DE LA ASOCIACION MEXICANA DE CIRUGIA PLASTICA, ESTETICA Y RECONSTRUCTIVA".
V Curso INTERNACIONAL AO de OSTEOSINTESIS CRANEOFACIAL en la ciudad de México D.F.
Constancia Curso Transcongreso NUEVOS CONCEPETOS EN PEELINGS QUIMICOS.
Constancia 5º Congreso ASOCIACION MEXICANA DE CIRUGIA DE LA MANO.
Asistencia Curso de Capacitación sobre Implantes Mamarios INAMED ACADEMY MEXICO.
GENERAL HOSPITAL SSA. Cancún. Q. Roo: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgeon surrogate. REGIONAL HOSPITAL Cancun Q. # 3 IMSS Roo. Job type: Specialist in Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. HOSPITAL AMAT. Cancún. Q. Roo: Cosmetic Surgery Care and Emergency (trauma facial pits. Nose, orbit, jaw, etc) tendon reconstructions, vascular and peripheral nerve with microsurgical techniques.
Medical degree from the Autonomous University of Yucatan ADVANCED Intensive English course at the Marin Community College in San FranciscoCalifornia USA Graduate General Surgery Hospital Juarez of Mexico from the SSA. Graduate in Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic by National Medical Center "20 deNoviembre" ISSSTE.
The Mexican Association of Plastic, Aesthetic and Reconstructive Surgery. Pre-Congress Course "BOTOX ADVANCED COURSE WORKSHOP" in the city ofMonterrey NL Pre-Congress Course "BILL orbit." "XXXV National Congress of the Mexican Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic." V International Course CRANIOFACIAL AO Osteosynthesis in the city of Mexico DF Constancia National Congress of the Mexican Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic. Course record CONCEPETOS IN NEW Transcongreso chemical peels. 5 Proof Congress MEXICAN ASSOCIATION OF HAND SURGERY. Assistance Training Course on Breast Implants INAMED ACADEMY MEXICO.
This is known to improve and tighten sagging skin and to reposition the tissues in the face, giving a smoother & rejuvenated aspect in the neck and face. The result of a facelift (Rhytidectomy) improves signs of facial aging such as, deep nasolabial, loss of muscle tone in the lower face and neck folds as well as other deep wrinkles. To be clear about expectations it is very important before you proceed into a facelift surgery. What your needs are, so we can determine the best treatment for you. You will need to know how the procedure will be carried out to achieve your desired results. Our specialist will analyze every aspect of the facelift procedure and suggest specific appearance needs.
Benefits of facelift surgery
Facelift surgery reverses common signs of aging, including wrinkles, sagging skin, and deep creases. It improves muscle tone and removes any excess fat and skin which may be causing a double chin or jowls. The actual procedure is fairly straightforward and complications are rare.
Any scars from the procedure will be hidden in the hairline or natural creases of the face, and will fade with time. The physical improvements of the procedure often help patients feel more confident and attractive.
Potential facelift risks include hematoma, temporary nerve injury, infection, and anesthesia-related reactions. Smokers are at an increased risk of poor healing. Choosing a skilled surgeon will decrease the risk of a complication occurring during facelift surgery.
Treating Physician: Dr. Alicia Adela Benavides Moron.
Specialist Physician: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgeon.
Specialist in Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery.
Treating Physician: Dr. Alejandro Gòmez Aguirre
Specialist Physician: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgeon.
Specialist in Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery.
Medical Center: Galenia Plastic Surgery Center
These procedures are performed at Galenia Plastic Surgery Center one of the leading plastic surgery center in Cancun, Mexico. Galenia Plastic Surgery Center is dedicated to the beauty and to improve your self-steem, providing a full range of body, breast, and facial plastic surgeries to patients from all over the country as well as across the border seeking rejuvenation of their face, body, and skin, as well as breast enhancement. Galenia Plastic Surgery Center has the most modern infrastructure supported by the Galenia hospital in the respective headquarter.
What are my expectations from my Facelift surgery?
Our specialist will proceede with a video conference appointment for you to identify your facial appearance expectations and the changes you desire, as well as the appropriate procedures in the areas of concern.
To accurate evaluate your health status; you will go true a medical examination, which will include pre- cardiac evaluation and some lab tests.
Our Aesthetic Surgeons in Cancun will take a photo of your face, then they will evaluate your areas of concern and will further advise on the procedures recommended, details about your facelift surgery in Galenia Plastic Surgery Center , including incisions and where they will be located, risks of facelift surgery, pre-operative and post-operative care, and recovery time.
Following the consultation session, we will schedule your facelift surgery date and you will be provided with the necessary instructions to follow from that point of check in until you are admitted the surgery operating room at Galenia Plastic Surgery Center.
How much time will take the facelift procedure and what type of anesthesia will be used?
A facelift procedure lasts approximately 5 hours. The anesthesia in a facelift surgery is local anesthesia and light sedation typically known as "twilight" sedation. Following your facelift, you will stay one night in the hospital; you will be evaluated again the next morning to be sure you are ready to check out. During this evaluation, you will be given recommendations on proper after care as well drugs prescriptions you may need. You will be schedule for your follow up consultation.
Post-Operative Care & Recovery time:
How long will take me to recover from Facelift (Rhytidectomy) surgery?
Recovering from facelift surgery is different in every case and is a gradual process. At the end of your facelift surgery, small tubes will be placed behind each ear to allow accumulated fluid to drain. Removal of these drains generally occurs within the first days. You will also be using a compression garment for 3 to 5 days to help reduce swelling, and for showering you may easily remove it. The use of hair dryer is not allow it for the first three weeks because the sensitivity of the skin is hi and could cause a burn. During the initial facelift recovery period, it is important not to have physical activities for a couple of weeks, due preventing of inflammation. At the end of the second week, you can return to normal activity, with the consent of your specialist.
You will see your final results of your facelift procedure in about 6 months but it will take several months for the swelling to go down completely.
Recovery: Takes 3 to 5 days
Browlift is a procedure that will, lift and also give you a reposition of the eyebrows. When the natural process of aging happens, gravity causes the eyebrows to fall or droop giving an aspect of tiredness. Some of your friends and relatives tell you that you look tired, sad, and angry or all of the above, brow lift surgery in Galenia Plastic Surgery Center can restore the general appearance of your face.
Most ideal eyebrow for a female is arched laterally and downward to the side. Most ideal eyebrow for a male is a straight line that runs along the orbital rim. The eyebrow have the trend to age eventually and earlier than the eyelids, and a common mistake people make is that you may have excess skins on the upper eyelids so it is necessary to evaluate each individual case, since it may have fallen eyebrow, excess skin on the upper eyelids or a combination of the two of them.
What are my expectations for my Brow lift surgery in Mexico?
Before your Browlift surgery in Galenia Plastic Surgery Center you will have a pre-consultation videoconference with our specialist to evaluate your face status, we will have special care to the upper third of the face and determine whether the problem is related to the eyebrows, excess skin on the eyelids, or both.
Together with the specialist will discuss the recommended procedures to have the results you are looking for. In order to effectively evaluate you health status before your brow lift surgery in Galenia Plastic Surgery Center, you will have a complete medical examination to determine your health status. These examinations include lab tests and a preoperative cardiac evaluation.
Our specialist plastic surgeons will take before-surgery pictures to evaluate the areas of concern and further will advise on the procedures recommended, details about your brow lift surgery in Galenia Plastic Surgery Center, including where the incisions will be located, risks on brow lift surgery, pre-operative care, as well as brow lift recovery time. Following this exam, we will schedule a surgery date and you will be given the necessary instructions to follow before you proceed with your brow lift surgery.
How much time will take the Brow Lift procedure and what type of anesthesia will be used?
Usually brow lift surgery lasts approximately 3 hours. The type of anesthesia used in brow lift surgery is local anesthesia and light sedation typically known as "twilight" sedation. This is an outpatient procedure and does not require hospitalization. You will stay in the hospital until full effects from the sedation have worn off, which is anywhere between 2 and 4 hours. In addition, your first follow up appointment will be scheduled.
Post-Operative Care & Recovery time:
How long does it take to recover from Brow Lift?
Recovering from brow lift surgery is fast, since we only make small, endoscopic incisions, thereby reducing the risks of alopecia (hair loss). During the first few days after your brow lift surgery, it is necessary to limit your physical activity to avoid increased inflammation. Patients recovering from brow lift surgery can typically continue with their normal activities at the end of one week with the consent of your specialist at Galenia Plastic Surgery Center.
Eyelid Lift at Galenia Plastic Surgery Center, known as Blepharoplasty, it is a procedure designed to remove excess of dry skin in the upper eyelid and/or the lower eyelid transform your face figure in a younger look. Number of times, the excess of skin is also accompanied by the presence of fat pads or fat pockets. Alternatively, there are cases where there are only fat pockets and no excess skin. Eyelid Lift (Blepharoplasty) at Galenia Plastic Surgery Center, our goal is to correct any or all of the above conditions in the upper and lower eyelids, including the drooping that can make people look tired or sad, ultimately giving a rejuvenated and better look in all your face.
What are the benefits of a Blepharoplasty?
Eyelid surgery dramatically improves the appearance of the eyes, and can improve the vision of patients whose lids droop into their line of sight. The surgery is fairly simple and quick, and results are natural looking and typically long-lasting. Blepharoplasty is performed also to improve vision that has been affected by folds of excess eyelid skin. Blepharoplasty can be combined with other surgical or injectable treatments to reduce other signs of aging. For example, dermal fillers may be injected into the eye area to fill in crow's feet. Or eyelid surgery may be combined with brow lift surgery to elevate a sagging brow line.
What are the Ricks of a Blepharoplasty?
Blepharoplasty patients are at a slight risk of general surgical complications such as swelling, infection, and bleeding, though these are quite rare. Pain or discomfort after the surgery can be mitigated with a pain medication prescription. Patients may experience minor scarring around the incision site, but a skilled surgeon will be able to hide the incisions for the surgery so the scars are less visible.
What are my expectations from my Eye lift surgery?
Before your Eye lift surgery at Galenia Plastic Surgery Center you will have a pre-consultation video conference with our specialist to evaluate your face status, examining the upper third of your face to determine whether the problem is related to the excess skin and/or fat pockets on the upper and lower eyelids or if there are additional issues with the brow area. We will discuss the changes and the results you want to achieve with your eyelid lift surgery at Galenia Plastic Surgery Center.
Medical check-up will be performed before you eyelid lift procedure at Galenia Plastic Surgery Center, you will go under medical tests to determine your health status. These examinations will include some lab tests and a cardiac evaluation. Our specialist will take a photo before of your face and eyelids to evaluate the areas of concern. Then also they will recommend the proper procedures, also all details in your eyelid lift surgery, including incisions and where they will be located, risks of Blepharoplasty surgery, pre-operative and post-operative care, as well as recovery time. After the consultation with the specialist, we will schedule your blepharoplasty surgery at your earliest convenience and the necessary instructions will be given to you until the day of your eyelid lift surgery.
How much time will take the Eyelid Lift procedure and what type of anesthesia will be used?
Usually Eyelid lift surgery lasts approximately 3 hours. The type of anesthesia used in brow lift surgery is local anesthesia and light sedation typically known as "twilight" sedation. This is an outpatient procedure and does not require hospitalization. You will stay in the hospital until full effects from the sedation have worn off, which is anywhere between 2 and 4 hours. In addition, your first follow up appointment will be scheduled.
Post-Operative Care & Recovery time:
How long does it take to recover from Eyelid Lift?
Recovering from eyelid lift surgery is rapid. In the first week of eyelid lift surgery, you are most likely to experience some eyelid edema and bruising, which is perfectly normal at this point. During the first few days, it is strongly recommended to limit your physical activity to avoid increased inflammation. Patients can typically continue with their normal activity at the end of one week of eyelid lift surgery with the consent of your plastic surgeon. By the third week, bruising and swelling will be gone as you start to witness the rewarding and gratifying results of your eyelid lift procedure.
Areas of concern:
Upper eyelids: puffiness-tired look - lower eyelids puffy (bags), dark circles - sagging upper and lower eyelid skin
Tips: A cool compress is suggested for the first 24 hours. Sutures will be removed 4 to 5 days after surgery. You can begin using make-up to conceal discoloration after one week.
Rhinoplasty or nose surgery is performed to change the bone or soft tissue defects that can ultimately correct and improve the nasal tip or bridge, reduce the size of nostrils, change the size of the nose making more balanced of the face structure. Rhinoplasty at Galenia Plastic Surgery Center is not only performed for aesthetic purposes, but it can be done for pure medical reasons: to correct functional problems and improve respiratory function.
What are my expectations from Rhinoplasty (Nose Surgery) surgery
Having the support and help of the specialist at Galenia Plastic Surgery Center, you will be able to make a decision about your rhinoplasty surgery. But first you must determine the following: the physical changes you would like to see about yourself and your expectations of rhinoplasty surgery at GPSC. You will also be asked to review and understand the information provided by the specialist, so you can get a clear perspective of your surgery procedure in GPSC. A full medical examination will be performed to determine your health status. These examinations may include some lab work and a preoperative cardiac evaluation; if required by your specialist.
Plastic surgeons at Galenia Plastic Surgery Center will take pictures before-surgery to evaluate the areas of concern and further advise on the treatments and techniques recommended, details about rhinoplasty surgery including incisions and location of these incisions, rihnoplasty surgery risks and side effects, pre-operative and post-operative care, as well as rhinoplasty surgery recovery time. Following this discussion, we will schedule your surgery date and you will be given all the necessary information to be prepared for your rhinoplasty surgery at Galenia Plastic Sugery Center. Nose surgery lasts approximately 2-3 hours. The anesthesia used in nose surgery is local anesthesia and light sedation typically known as "twilight" sedation. Nose surgery at GPSC can be done on an outpatient basis or you may stay overnight in the hospital, depending on the advice given by your plastic surgeon at GPSC.
If rhinoplasty at GPSC is done on an outpatient basis, you will stay in the hospital until full effects from the sedation have worn off, which is anywhere between 2 and 4 hours. In addition, your first follow up appointment with GPSC specialist will be scheduled. Additional follow ups of your rhinoplasty at GPSC will continue even after you have returned home via Video conference by Skype.
What are the benefits of Rhinoplasty?
One of the biggest benefits of a nose job is that the results are tailored to the individual patient’s needs and goals. The transformation can be as subtle or dramatic as the patient desires. It will also target the specific features of the nose that the patient doesn’t like (e.g. the nostrils, tip, or bridge). Rhinoplasty can create symmetry of the face. It can also alter the shape of the nose, improving its proportion to the rest of the face. The aesthetic benefits of a nose job generally enhance the self-confidence and self-esteem of the patient, leading to greater social interaction with friends and professional engagement with colleagues.
Who are suitable candidates for rhinoplasty (nose surgery)?
The best candidates for rhinoplasty are people who want to improve, but not improve its appearance, age should be considered, it is recommended that patients wait at least until 14 or 15 years, and possibly even a few years in the case of men, before surgery. The reason is none other than the lack of development of the nose at an early age. There is no limit in the adult age to undergo a rhinoplasty if there is no anesthetic contraindication. The most common reasons for this cosmetic surgery is to have a nose too long, having a hump in the profile of the nose, having the tip of the nose drop, as a nose too wide or for a shift in product nose some previous blow.
Areas of Concern: Large Nose Crooked-Nose Nasal Hump-Poor Tip Definition Broken-Nose
(Breathing Problems)-Nose Reduction
Post-Operative Care & Recovery time:
How long does it take to recover from Rhinoplasty (Nose Surgery)?
Recovering from rhinoplasty surgery Galenia Plastic Surgery Center is gradual and will depend heavily on the post-operative care. After one week of your rhinoplasty, you may return to your routine activities. You may experience bruising and some swelling for several days and will have to wear a splint that can be removed in 7-10 days. You can resume exercise after 4 weeks from you rhinoplasty surgery date; however you must consult your specialist at GPSC first. You also must avoid sun exposure for the first 3 weeks.
Is one of the most common plastic surgery procedures in Galenia Plastic Surgery Center. Liposuction is a plastic surgery procedure designed to remove fat from a specific body area, to re-shape and re-contour the figure.
In women, fat deposits tend to accumulate more directly from the waist down.
In men, fat deposits accumulate in particular:
What are my expectations for a Liposuction?
At your liposuction surgery consultation you will be assigned to the specialist that will evaluate your overall health, fatty deposit areas and the condition of your skin. This consultation is to determining the most appropriate treatment techniques best suited for your liposuction surgery at Galenia Plastic Surgery Center.
In order to determine your health status to proceed liposuction surgery at GPSC, the specialist will run some medical examinations. These pre-surgery medical examinations include lab work and a preoperative cardiac evaluation.
The specialist plastic surgeon will take some pre-surgery shots to evaluate the areas of concern and will further advise on the liposuction surgery treatments recommended, details about your liposuction surgery at GPSC, including location of the incisions and risks of liposuction surgery at GPSC, pre-operative and post-operative care, as well as Liposuction surgery recovery time.
After the surgery discussion with your specialist, we will schedule a liposuction surgery date and you will be providing with the necessary instructions to be prepared for your liposuction surgery at Galenia Plastic Surgery Center.
Liposuction procedure can last between 2-4 hours depending on the areas being treated. The type of anesthesia used in liposuction is light sedation typically known as "twilight" sedation plus an epidural spinal block.
Following your liposuction surgery at GPSC, one night in the hospital will be necessary and the surgeon will conduct a follow up with you before leaving the hospital. In addition, your next plastic surgery follow up appointment will be scheduled.
What are the Benefits of a Liposuction?
Liposuction has a slimming effect on the treated areas. It can be used in multiple areas of the body, including the abdomen, thighs, buttocks, hips ("love handles"), back, and even the upper arms, neck, and chin. It’s an affordable and safe surgery, which is usually performed on an outpatient basis. Anesthesia is used for optimal comfort. One of the advantages of the tumescent and ultrasonic-assisted approaches is the reduction of post-operative swelling, bruising, and soreness.
What are the Risks of a Liposuction?
Potential risks of liposuction include asymmetry or irregularities of body contours (e.g., rippling or bagginess), changes in skin pigment, fluid retention, and infection. Tumescent liposuction can sometimes result in some drainage from the incision sites.
Who are the best candidates for liposuction?
Men and women in good physical condition with good skin elasticity are the best candidates. They are people with specific areas of fat deposits that have failed to eliminate them through diet and exercise.
In what areas is liposuction effective?
Any area where excess fat deposits can be treated, including chin, neck, cheeks, arms, thighs (inner and outer) buttocks, knees, hips and abdomen. In men, the growth of the nipples (gynecomastia) can also benefit from this treatment.
Post-Operative Care & Recovery time:
How long does it take to recover from Liposuction surgery?
Liposuction recovering is gradual, and it is very important to start walking as soon as possible. You will begin to feel better after the first week and you can return to your normal activities in a ´period of two weeks from the date of your liposuction. Physical activity is not allowed for the first 3 weeks after liposuction surgery, such as exercising, running, swimming, etc., until your body has fully recovered. Although most of the swelling and bruising disappear within six weeks from your liposuction surgery in Mexico- some swelling can remain for up to six months, though. Immediately after your liposuction surgery, you see a noticeable difference in the shape and contours of your body.
Must remain at rest for 5 to 7 days, after which you can return to normal life. The strong exercise not recommended until 2 or 3 weeks after the operation.
Swelling and discoloration may occur in the area, which is completely normal. It usually disappears during the first month.
The doctor will prescribe pain medication for discomfort.
The stitches are generally removed at 7 days.
However, the improvement will continue to be more evident after three weeks from your liposuction surgery, when a large amount of the swelling has subsided.
You will be able to see the final results of your liposuction surgery in Mexico after six months.
Continue with a healthy eating and a nutritional regimen, while maintaining a regular work-out to in order to foster the results of your liposuction surgery.
Abdomen is one of the parts of the body that suffers the most from weight changes, aging, physical inactivity and for women in particular during the pregnancy period. Some people can get results from diet and exercise alone because excess skin can only be corrected through surgery. Tummy tuck surgery at Galenia Plastic Sugery Center has the purpose of tightening the underlying muscles and removing excess skin from the abdomen. Abdominoplasty is not only geared toward women; abdominoplasty procedure also helps enhance the waistlines of men.
What are my expectations from my Tummy Tuck (Abdominal Lipectomy, Abdominoplasty) surgery?
We will plan tummy tuck surgery consultation; with one of the specialist at GPSC, we will chose very carefully for your appearance final expectations of the procedure. As part of tummy tucks procedure consultation, your specialist will access your skin and also your muscles to see how extent they are and separated underneath the skin.
The tummy tuck examination is designed to determine the exact plastic surgery procedure is best for your condition and whither you need any additional treatments, such as liposuction. In order to determine if you are physically fit for tummy tuck surgery at GPSC, you will need to have an extensive medical examination. Medical examination for tummy tuck surgery in Mexico usually includes some lab work and a preoperative cardiac evaluation.
The specialist will take some pre-surgery shots to evaluate the areas of concern and further advise on tummy tuck procedures recommended, details about those procedures including tummy tuck incisions and where they will be located, risks of tummy tuck surgery, pre-operative and post-operative care, as well as tummy tuck recovery time.
After your abdominoplasty procedure initial consultation with the specialist, we will schedule your tummy tuck surgery date and you will be given all the necessary information and instructions to be prepared for tummy tuck surgery.
Tummy tuck surgery at GPSC usually takes 3-5 hours. The type of anesthesia used in tummy tuck surgery is light sedation typically known as "twilight" sedation plus an epidural spinal block. After you tummy tuck surgery, you will stay at the hospital for one night and the specialist will conduct a follow up with you before leaving the hospital. In addition, your next follow up tummy tuck surgery appointment will be scheduled.
What are the Benefits of a Tummy Tuck?
The benefits of a tummy tuck last longer if the patient takes care of his or her body (i.e., maintains a healthy diet and exercise regimen). Women who have had tummy tucks should not plan to have more children, as pregnancy stretches the abdominal muscles, reversing the effects of a tummy tuck.
What are the Tummy Tuck Risks?
The risk of surgical or post-surgical complications is dramatically reduced when an experienced plastic surgeon performs the procedure in an accredited surgical center such as ours. However, possible tummy tuck risks include:
How a tummy tuck surgery is performed?
The surgery is performed through a lower abdominal incision, which is usually hidden. The skin is stretched down and additional skin may be removed. Suction (lipectomy) can be combined and performed in some cases on abdomen, hips or elsewhere. Your doctor may select general anesthesia, so you'll sleep through the operation.
Post-Operative Care & Recovery time:
How much time will it take to recover from Abdominoplasty surgery in Mexico?
Recovering from tummy tuck is gradual, and it is very important to start to walk as soon as possible. You will begin to feel better after the first week of tummy tuck and you can return to your normal activities two weeks after your tummy tuck procedure. Usually, patients can use half-heeled shoes in the third week, drive after one month and begin returning to an exercise routine after 6 weeks from tummy tuck surgery.
The bust, in addition to being a strong female symbol, has played a very important psychological and cultural role throughout history.
All over the world we can see beautiful sculptures in different and exalting the feminine figure. The most perfect examples is the Venus de Milo. In reviewing this history we can understand why to this day the concept of beauty has very different characteristics depending on the region, country, and our own expectations. The bust is what gives the woman's body its delicate balance of anatomy. Today, breast augmentation in Galenia Plastic Surgery Center is one of the popular and frequently performed surgeries.
Surgical procedure: The operation involves insertion of saline implants through an incision under the breast, around the areola (pigmented skin) surrounding the nipple, or in the armpit. The breast implant may be placed above or below the muscle. It is usually performed under general anesthesia in the operation room.
What are my expectations from my Breast Implants (Breast Augmentation) surgery?
If you are considering breast augmentation surgery, it is very important to be clear about your expectations and appearance goals, including breast shape and size.
During your breast augmentation consultation, it is also important to share your motivations and expectations of your breast augmentation surgery in Galenia Plastic Surgery Center with your plastic surgeon, including size, change of shape or making the breasts symmetrical. One of our plastic surgeons will then exam your breasts and discuss their recommendations on how to achieve your goals before undergoing breast augmentation surgery in GPSC.
You will then need to take some medical examinations to evaluate your health status in order to determine if your physically and psychologically fit for breast augmentation surgery. These examinations include some lab work and a preoperative cardiac evaluation.
A specialist in GPSC will take some pre-surgery pictures to identify the areas of concern and will further advise on the recommended breast augmentation treatments, details about breast augmentation surgery, including incisions and their located, risks of breast augmentation, pre-operative and post-operative care at GPSC, as well as breast augmentation surgery recovery time.
Following your breast augmentation discussion with GPSC plastic surgeon, we will schedule your breast augmentation surgery date and you will be given the necessary information and instructions to be best prepared for your breast augmentation surgery at GPSC.
Breast augmentation surgery lasts approximately 2 hours. The type of anesthesia used in breast augmentation surgery in Mexico is light sedation typically known as "twilight" sedation plus a local anesthetic. After breast augmentation surgery is completed, you will stay in the hospital one night and one of our specialist surgeons will conduct a follow up meeting with you before leaving the hospital. In addition, your next breast augmentations follow up appointment.
What are the Benefits of breast augmentation?
Who are suitable candidates for Breast Augmentation?
The Best Candidates for Breast Augmentation
These are the people looking for an improvement and not perfection in the way they look. If you are physically healthy and realistic about your expectations, you are likely to be a good candidate.
What are the types if implants use?
Types of Implants: A breast implant is a silicone shell filled with either silicone gel or a salt-water solution known as saline. Our certified board surgeons use safe, FDA-approved saline implants of various textures and shapes for beautiful contour and natural, comfortable results.
Post-Operative Care & Recovery time:
How much time will take to recover from my breast augmentation Surgery?
Recovering form breast augmentation surgery will be gradual. Generally after the first week of your breast augmentation surgery at GPSC, you can return to your normal activities. However, the first 4 weeks of breast augmentation surgery, you will need to limit the movement of your arms and avoid strenuous physical activity as well as heavy lifting.
A special bra is worn for two weeks following the surgery. After its removal, the patient needs to massage the breasts regularly.
Patients may return to non-strenuous work after a few days. Stitches do not need to be removed, since they will dissolve on their own in ten to fourteen days. Taking a shower is permitted in three to seven days following the surgery.
Breast lift surgery (Mastopexy) at Galenia Plastic Surgery Center is designed to recover the shape, volume and tone the skin of the breasts which, over the years, have changed due to weight fluctuations, pregnancy and/or breast feeding.
Breast lift surgery (Mastopexy) at Galenia Plastic Surgery Center is performed in order to reposition the tissues, with the possibility of also increasing the volume with implants, if the patient so desires.
Different techniques are perform during the breast lift surgery Galenia Plastic Surgery Center, which all depend on your own situation. The most common treatment techniques of breast lift surgery at Galenia Plastic Surgery Center are the Mastopexy (Lift) peri areolar, which is the removal and repositioning of breast tissue through an incision around the areola.
The second method used in breast lift surgery at Galenia Plastic Surgery Center is a complete Pexy lift with a "T" incision that goes from the areola down to the crease in your breasts and then an additional horizontal scar in the crease. The Pexy lift technique of breast lift surgery is used when there is a drooping of the breasts, also known as ptosis.
The Pexy lift technique of breast lift surgery used at Galenia Plastic Surgery Center allows even distribution of the tissues, as well as giving additional support to the mammary gland itself. If needed, both techniques can be performed in breast lift surgery in Mexico at the same time, in order to increase volume with an implant.
It is very important to discuss your breast lift surgery expectations with your assigned specialist surgeon Galenia Plastic Surgery Center and ask all the questions you may have in the breast lift consultation session.
Once you have decided to have a breast lift, a certified board plastic surgeon will explain the entire procedure to you. You can tell him all your expectations and needn’t hesitate to ask any questions. A mammogram (breast X-rays) and a routine breast exam are required before the surgery.
Surgical Procedure: There are numerous surgical techniques, depending on the breast size and shape. The most frequently performed ones are the following:
1. Vertical technique with scar around the nipple and a single vertical scar extending downwards. There are some small wrinkles for two months which disappear in time.
2. Peri-areolar technique with just one circular scar around the nipple. Initially there are some wrinkles, but they disappear under the pressure of the mammary gland. It is not suitable for large breasts.
If augmentation of breasts is to be done, an implant can be placed in front or behind the gland, but most often under muscle.
What are my expectations from My Breast Lift surgery (Mastopexy) surgery?
Breast lift surgery at Galenia Plastic Surgery Center is right for you if you feel that your breasts have undergone any of the changes outlined above and you would like to change their shape and/or increase the volume. Our specialist surgeon will evaluate your unique situation in your breast lift surgery consultation session in Mexico.
Following your breast lift surgery consultation session, you will need to undergo medical examinations to determine your health status. The medical examinations of your breast lift surgery at GPSC include some lab work and a preoperative cardiac evaluation.
Our specialist surgeon will take some pre-surgery photos to evaluate the areas of concern and will further advise on the breast lift procedures, details about breast lift surgery at GPSC, including incisions made during the surgery and their locations, risks of breast lift surgery at GPSC, pre-operative and post-operative care, as well as breast lift recovery time.
Following your breast lift surgery discussion with one of specialist plastic surgeons, we will schedule your breast lift surgery date and you will be given the necessary information and instructions to ensure you are best prepared for your breast lift surgery.
Breast lift surgery in Mexico lasts approximately 4 hours. The type of anesthesia we use in breast lift surgery at GPSC is light sedation typically known as "twilight" sedation plus a local anesthetic or an epidural block. You will stay in the hospital in Mexico for one night and your assigned specialist plastic surgeon will conduct a follow-up meeting with you before leaving the hospital the next morning. In addition, your next breast lift follow-up appointment will be Schedule.
What are the Breast Lift Benefits?
A breast lift will reposition drooping or sagging breasts higher on the chest, as well as move the nipple higher up on the breast. The result is a perkier, shapelier bust line. A breast lift is also beneficial to patients who have recently lost a significant amount of weight and are lacking volume and shape in their breasts. Whatever your motivation for undergoing the procedure, the physical transformation provided by a breast lift is emotionally rewarding; breast lift surgery can prompt an increase in self-esteem and confidence.Wha
t are the Breast Lift Risks?
Typically a safe and very effective procedure, breast lift surgery, as all surgical procedures do, does carry a few risks. Risks of a breast lift include:
If you are concerned about the risks of breast lift surgery, talk to one of our plastic surgeons, who can reassure you about the safety and efficacy of the procedure.
Post-Operative Care & Recovery time:
How much time will take to recover from Breast Lift surgery?
Breast lift surgery Recovering at GPSC will be gradual. Generally after a few days from your breast lift surgery, you will feel good but it is important to limit your activities, in order to keep the surgery inflammation to a minimum, especially during the first week. By the second week of your breast lift surgery, you can return to your normal activities with caution. You may begin to exercise after 4 weeks from breast lift surgery. Regular follow up appointments will be scheduled to monitor the progress of your breast lift surgery.
Women with very large, pendulous breasts may experience a variety of medical problems, caused by the excessive breast weight, ranging from back and neck pain or skin irritation to skeletal deformities and breathing problems. If you decide to have the breast reduction surgery, the Plastic Surgeon will examine your breasts and talk to you about the desired size of your breasts. He will show you where he intends to position the nipple and the areola.
The procedure is usually performed under general anesthesia and takes about 3-4 hours, during which fat and extra tissue are removed. The scars are around the areola and the underside of the breast. A supportive bra is worn for several weeks and patients can usually return to work 5-7 days after the surgery.
Gynecomastia, or excess development of breast tissue, occurs in as many as 40-60% of men.
The cause is not always known, but the incidence increases with certain prescription drugs, use of steroid anabolics or alcohol. Breast reduction surgery may significantly help your appearance and self-image. The procedure is used to remove fat and glandular tissue from the breasts. The result is a flatter, firmer and more masculine-looking chest.
Microlaminectomy is performed for patients with symptomatic, painful lumbar spinal stenosis. It is performed to remove the large, arthritic osteophytes (bone spurs) that are compressing the spinal nerves. This is microscopic or endoscopic surgical approach performed using a small incision, with minimal dissection, to accomplish a nerve root lumbar decompression. This minimally invasive approach allows for a more rapid recovery.
What is a Microlaminectomy?
Microlaminectomy is a minimally invasive surgical procedure used to treat patients suffering from bone spurs compressing the spinal nerves, lumbar spinal stenosis, or herniated lumbar discs, which are sometimes referred to as slipped discs or ruptured discs. Traditional surgery uses large incisions that cause trauma to the muscle and nerve tissue, often resulting in increased pain and a longer hospital stay. In contrast, microlaminectomy is a microscopic surgical approach that uses two-to-three centimeter-long incisions that do not damage muscle and other soft tissues.
What happened after surgery?
Most patients are usually able to go home 1-2 days after surgery. Before patients go home, physical therapists and occupational therapists work with patients and instruct them on proper techniques of getting in and out of bed and walking independently. Patients are instructed to avoid bending at the waist, lifting (more than five pounds), and twisting in the early postoperative period (first 2-4 weeks) to avoid a strain injury. Patients can gradually begin to bend, twist, and lift after 1-2 weeks as the pain subsides and the back muscles get stronger.
What is the chance of being cured?
The results of microlaminectomy surgery in the treatment of symptomatic spinal stenosis are generally excellent. Numerous research studies in medical journals demonstrate greater than 86-95% good or excellent results from microlaminectomy surgery, and often show an improved recovery time compared with patients undergoing conventional, open laminectomy surgery. Most patients are noted to have a rapid improvement of their pain and return to normal function.
Using innovative technology, a minimally invasive surgery (MIS) spinal fusion (mending the spine bones together) can now be accomplished using two small e incisions with minimal tissue dissection resulting in a faster recovery and less pain than traditional open spinal fusion surgery. Posterior Lumbar Fusion (PLF) is the general term used to describe the technique of surgically mending two (or more) lumbar spine bones together. Minimally invasive PLF is performed instrumentation (use of metal screws/rods) to impart immediate stability while the bone mends together. The MIS PLF technique is often favored when a laminectomy is not required. It is performed for a variety of spinal conditions, such as spondylolisthesis and spinal instability, among others.
When should I consider surgery?
Surgery should always be the last resort when it comes to treating spinal conditions in the neck and back. However, if various non-operative treatments have been attempted without improvement or worsening over a 6-12 month period, then surgical treatment seems reasonable for certain specific conditions such as spinal stenosis, sciatica, spondylolisthesis or degenerative scoliosis. The decision for surgery should be individualized to the patient and the patient’s symptoms, along with their level of function.
How long is the recovery?
Most patients are able to get up out of bed and start walking shortly after surgery, usually on the same or following day. For the first 6 weeks, the activity level is limited to walking and normal daily activities.
Most patients are encouraged to avoid heavy lifting, frequent bending, twisting or turning or climbing during the first 6 week period. After 6 weeks, patients begin a physical therapy and exercise program to achieve rapid recovery and strength. By 3 months a gradual increase in normal activities as well as the institution of low impact sporting activities can be started. At 6 weeks, all activities are begun, including sports.
Which type of surgery has a greater success rate?
At present, the long-term results of minimally invasive surgery are not well studied. These assessments are ongoing. The short term success of minimally invasive spine surgery is well established. It is clear that minimally invasive surgery allows more rapid recovery and return to work/sports. There is less post-operative pain and shorter hospital stay
Microlumbar Discectomy (MLD), is performed for patients with a painful lumbar herniated disc. Microdiscectomy is a very common for spine surgeons. The operation consists of removing the protruding portion of the disc that is compressing the nerve root. Today, spine surgeons use a microscopic or endoscopic surgical approach with a small, minimally-invasive incision, allowing for a more rapid recovery.
What is a microdiscectomy?
Microdiscectomy, also called Microlumbar Discectomy (MLD), is performed for patients with a painful lumbar herniated disc. Microdiscectomy is a very common, if not the most common, surgery performed by spine surgeons. The operation consists of removing a portion of the intervertebral disc, the herniated or protruding portion that is compressing the traversing spinal nerve root.
What is the chance of a successful Lumbar Microdiscectomy
A lumbar microdiscectomy is 85% - 95% successful in relieving pain in the lower back and leg. Pain relief after the surgery is generally rather rapid however in some acute instances it can take from six to eight weeks for the affected nerve to settle down. If the nerve has been pinched for quite some time the success rate is rarely 100% and there can be some residual weakness, mild tingling or pain which should be tolerable however.
What are the limitations of the Lumbar Microdiscectomy?
The major limitation of the surgery is a slight weakening of the affected ruptured disc post surgery. When a disc ruptures (herniates) within your pack a hole is created within the other ring. In order to remove the loose material and conduct the surgery the surgeon will enlarge this hole, however there is no way to repair the hole once it has been enlarged so while the surgery will be effective in removing the pain to your lower back and leg - you will be left with a permanently weakened outer ring around one of your discs. Care will need to be taken to prevent any undue stress to the disc for fear of re-herniation.
Now a day there are advance treatments by Neuroendoscopy for hydrocephalus. These procedures are done thru a 2cm incision in the skin and a 1cm diameter hole in the skull.
Disorders treatable using Neuroendoscopy:
Hydrocephalus Third ventriculostomy is indicated for non-communicating hydrocephalus where there is and obstruction on the aqueduct, and the intention is to bypass this obstruction. This procedure connects the ventricular system at the 3rd ventricle to the basal cisterns and the fluid can reach the arachnoidal granulations and be reabsorbed.
What does hydrocephalus means?
Hydrocephalus, also known as "water in the brain," is a medical condition in which there is an abnormal accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the ventricles, or cavities, of the brain. This may cause increased intracranial pressure inside the skull and progressive enlargement of the head, convulsion, tunnel vision, and mental disability. Hydrocephalus can also cause death.
What is a Neuroendoscopy for Hydrocephalus?
Neuroendoscopy is a promising minimally invasive technique in the management of non-communicating hydrocephalus and hydrocephalus associated with brain tumors and intraventricular cystic lesions. However neuroendoscopic procedures are not without risks.
What is the treatment of this condition?
Hydrocephalus treatment is surgical, generally creating various types of cerebral shunts. It involves the placement of a ventricular catheter (a tube made of silastic), into the cerebral ventricles to bypass the flow obstruction/malfunctioning arachnoidal granulations and drain the excess fluid into other body cavities, from where it can be reabsorbed. Most shunts drain the fluid into the peritoneal cavity (ventriculo-peritoneal shunt), but alternative sites include the right atrium (ventriculo-atrial shunt), pleural cavity (ventriculo-pleural shunt), and gallbladder. A shunt system can also be placed in the lumbar space of the spine and have the CSF redirected to the peritoneal cavity (Lumbar-peritoneal shunt). An alternative treatment for obstructive hydrocephalus in selected patients is the endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV), whereby a surgically created opening in the floor of the third ventricle allows the CSF to flow directly to the basal cisterns, thereby shortcutting any obstruction, as in aqueduct stenosis. This may or may not be appropriate based on individual anatomy.
With the help of Stereotactic Neurosurgery Parkinson disease patients can be effectively treated. There are two types of stereotactic procedures available to treat these patients worldwide.
Deep brain stimulation (DBS)
Chronic deep brain stimulation is a rapidly emerging therapy for advanced Parkinson disease. Deep brain stimulation surgery technique involves implanting electrodes inside the deep nuclei of brain called as sub thalamus. These electrodes are then connected to IPG (Pacemaker) implanted underneath the skin below the clavicle through the connecting leads. This stimulates the deep brain nuclei, which results to regression of tremor and stiffness. With the progress of deep brain stimulation disease the parameters of stimulation are changed over a period of time so that patients can remain symptom free for long period of time. Normally the life of the pacemaker is five years and after that a new pacemaker replaces it. The electrodes remain in position for life long.
The stimulation of sub thalamic nucleus through this device leads to improvement in all the symptoms of advanced Parkinson disease. Implanting the brain electrode in vim nucleus of thalamus can effectively treat all the types of tremor, bilateral procedures can be performed at the same sitting.
Deep Brain Stimulation Surgery Advantages:
1. Non destructive compare to a lesion
2. Completely reversible Patient will come back in same condition once the device is switched off.
Reduction of antiparkinson medication:
There is significant reduction of antiparkinson medication (50-75%) after stimulation and hence there is improvement in all drug induced side effects like abnormal movements.
Patient is kept off medication for 12 hrs. A Stereotactic frame is fixed under local anesthesia, and then patient is taken to Radiology Department for CT Scanning and MRI.
The surgical target (sub thalamic or vim nucleus) calculated by CT scan and MRI in a sophisticated computer software.
In the operation theatre, a small burr hole is made in coronal region right or left depending on the side aimed.
The patient is awake and exam by the neurologist to see any reduction of tremor or stiffness during the electrode placing and stimulation DBS lead is placed true the burr hole.
Some tests are done with an external programmer to see the results of the DBS
DBS lead is connected to IPG (pacemaker) under general anesthesia.
After the Deep Brain Stimulation electrodes implantation, the next important step of this surgery is programming.
Initial programming is done in the clinic before leaving and after as outpatient basis in subsequent visits.
When should one consider surgical therapy?
For patients with early Parkinson's disease, levodopa (sinemet) and other antiparkinsonian medications are usually effective for maintaining a good quality of life. As the disorder progresses, however, medications can produce disabling side effects. Many patients on long-term levodopa develop troublesome dyskinesias, excessive movements that often cause the limbs and body to writhe or jump. In addition, their dose of levodopa no longer lasts as long as it once did. When patients no longer have an acceptable quality of life due to these shortcomings of medical therapy, surgical treatment should be considered.
What are the benefits of DBS surgery?
The major benefit of DBS surgery for PD is that it makes movement in the off-medication state more like the movement in the on-medication state. In addition, it reduces levodopa-induced dyskinesias, either by a direct suppressive effect or indirectly by allowing some reduction in medication dose. Thus, the procedure is most beneficial for Parkinson's patients who cycle between states of immobility ("off" state) and states of better mobility ("on" state). DBS smoothes out these fluctuations so that there is better function during more of the day. Any symptom that can improve with levodopa (slowness, stiffness, tremor, gait disorder) can also improve with DBS. At present, we believe that DBS only suppresses symptoms and does not alter the underlying progression of Parkinson's disease.
How long does it take before the full benefit of DBS is apparent?
For reasons that are not fully understood, the improvement in Parkinson is an symptoms my take a few hour or days to reach its maximal level following a programming change. Some problems may respond more quickly than others. In addition, to realize the full benefit of DBS, medication changes and multiple programming sessions may be needed. Thus it is usually a few months after surgery before the final degree of benefit is actually realized.
Posterior Cervical Fusion (PCF) is the general term used to describe the technique of surgically mending two (or more) cervical spine bones together along the sides of the bone using a posterior (back of the neck) incision. Metal screws and rods are used to immediate stability. PCF is most commonly performed for patients with cervical fractures or instability, but is also performed for a variety of other spinal conditions, such as tumors, infections, and deformity. PCF may also be performed in conjunction with anterior cervical surgery, especially when multiple levels are involved.
Surgical Technique: The surgery is performed utilizing general anesthesia. Patients are positioned in the prone (lying on the stomach) position. A 4-6 inch (depending on the number of levels) posterior (back of the neck) longitudinal incision is made in the midline, directly over the involved spinal level(s). The fascia and muscle is gently divided, exposing the spinous processes and spine bones. An x-ray is obtained to confirm the appropriate spinal levels to be fused. Alaminectomy (removal of lamina portion of bone) and for alaminectomy (removal of bone spurs near where the nerve comes through the hole of the spine bone) can be performed if necessary.
Two small metal screws can be affixed to each spine bone, one on each side, which are then connected together with a titanium metal rod on each side of the spine. The deep facial layer and subcutaneous layers are closed with strong sutures. The skin can usually be closed using sutures or staples. A sterile bandage is applied. The total surgery time is approximately 2-4 hours, depending on the number of spinal levels involved.
Post-Operative Care & Recovery Time:
Most patients are able to go home 3-5 days after surgery. Patients are instructed to avoid excessive bending and twisting of the neck in the acute postoperative period (first 1-2 months). Patients can gradually begin to bend and twist their neck after 2-3 months after the fusion solidifies and the pain subsides. Patients are also instructed to avoid heavy lifting in the postoperative period (first 2-4 months). Most patients are required to wear a neck brace after surgery. This reduces the stress on the neck area and helps improve bone healing and decrease pain in the postoperative period. The wound area should remain covered with a gauze bandage secured in place with tape.
The bandage should be changed daily after showering. Patients should not take a bath until the wound has completely healed, which is usually around 2 weeks after surgery. Patients may begin driving when the pain has decreased to a mild level and neck range-of-motion is improved, which usually is between 2-6 weeks after surgery. Patients may return to light work duties as early as 2-4 weeks after surgery, depending on when the surgical pain has subsided. Patients may return to moderate level work and light recreational sports as early as 3 months after surgery, if the surgical pain has subsided and the neck strength and mobility has returned appropriately with physical therapy. Patients who have undergone cervical fusion at only one level may return to heavy lifting and sports activities if the surgical pain has subsided and the neck strength and mobility has returned appropriately with physical therapy.
Patients who have undergone cervical fusion at two or more levels are generally recommended to avoid heavy lifting, laborious work, and impact sports. Patients will return for a follow-up visit to see the doctor approximately 8 days after surgery. The incision will be inspected and the stitches or staples will be removed. Patients will usually return to see the doctor every 4-6 weeks thereafter, and an x-ray will be taken to confirm the fusion area is stable and healing appropriately.
The results of posterior cervical fusion (PCF) surgery in the treatment of symptomatic unstable spinal fractures, tumors, infections, and deformity are generally good. Numerous research studies in medical journals demonstrate greater than 80-90% good or excellent results from PCF surgery. Most patients are noted to have a significant improvement of their neck pain and instability, and return to their normal daily activities.
What is a posterior cervical fusion?
Posterior Cervical Fusion (PCF) is the general term used to describe the technique of surgically mending two (or more) cervical spine bones together along the sides of the bone using a posterior (back of the neck) incision. Bone graft is placed along the sides the spine bones, which over time, fuses (mends) together.
What do surgeons hope to achieve?
Posterior cervical fusion is used to stop movement between the bones of the neck. A serious fracture or dislocation of the neck vertebrae poses a risk to the spinal cord. The spinal cord is sometimes damaged by the fractured or dislocated bones. Surgeons hope to protect the spinal cord from additional injury by fusing these bones together.
What should I expect as I recover?
Rehabilitation after posterior cervical fusion can be a slow process. If the spinal cord was injured from a neck fracture or dislocation, patients may need intensive and ongoing rehabilitation for the neurological condition. When the spinal cord has not been damaged, patients may need to attend therapy sessions for two to three months and should expect full recovery to take up to eight months.
Many surgeons prescribe outpatient physical therapy beginning a minimum of four weeks after surgery. At first, treatments are used to help control pain and inflammation. Ice and electrical stimulation treatments are commonly used to help with these goals. Your therapist may also use massage and other hands-on treatments to ease muscle spasm and pain.
Posterior Lumbar Fusion (PLF) or Posterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion (PLIF) is the general term used to describe the technique of surgically mending two (or more) lumbar spine bones together. PLF may be performed in conjunction with or without a posterior decompression (laminectomy). Metal screws and rods are placed as to impart immediate stability the spine while the bone mends together. PLF is commonly performed for a variety of spinal conditions, such as spondylolisthesis, spinal fractures, after spinal tumor resection, infections, and scoliosis, among others.
What is a posterior lumbar fusion?
Posterior Lumbar Fusion (PLF) is the general term used to describe the technique of surgically mending two (or more) lumbar spine bones together along the sides of the bone. Bone graft is placed along side the spine bones (not in between the disc spaces, which is called an interbody fusion), and ultimately fuses together.
What happens before surgery?
Most patients are usually able to go home 2-5 days after surgery. Before patients go home, physical therapists and occupational therapists work with patients and instruct them on proper techniques of getting in and out of bed and walking independently. Patients are instructed to avoid bending at the waist, lifting (more than five pounds), and twisting in the early postoperative period (first 2-4 weeks) to avoid a strain injury. Patients can gradually begin to bend, twist, and lift after 4-6 weeks as the pain subsides and the back muscles get stronger.
What are the results?
The results of posterior lumbar fusion (PLF) surgery in the treatment of symptomatic spondylolisthesis, spinal fractures, tumors, infections, and scoliosis are generally excellent. Numerous research studies in medical journals demonstrate greater than 85-96% good or excellent results from PLF surgery. Most patients are noted to have a significant improvement of their back pain and return to many, if not all, of their normal daily and recreational activities.
Surgery is an alternative for some people whose seizures cannot be controlled by medications. It has been used for more than a century, but its use dramatically increased in the 1980s and '90s, reflecting its effectiveness as an alternative to seizure medicines. The benefits of surgery should be weighed carefully against its risks, however, because there is no guarantee that it will be successful in controlling seizures.
Patients with partial epilepsy who are considered for surgery have difficult-to-control seizures that have not responded to aggressive treatment with medication. Surgery is recommended for patients whose seizures have been uncontrolled for only 1 or 2 years.
The surgical options include:
Lobe resection (lobotomy): This can be frontal lobe or temporal lobe resection.
Temporal lobe epilepsy is the most common type of epilepsy in teens and adults. In a temporal lobotomy, the temporal lobe is cut away, to remove the seizure focus, anterior and deep middle portions of the temporal lobe are the areas most often involved in the seizures.
Lesionectomy: This surgery removes isolated brain lesions such as injury tissue, tumor or malformed blood vessel that are responsible for seizure activity. The seizures have a significant reduction or stop once the lesion is removed.
Corpus callosotomy: (split-brain surgery) the corpus callosum is a band of nerve fibers connecting the two hemispheres of the brain. This operation in which the anterior part or the all corpus callosum is cut, disconnects communication from one side to the other of the brain and prevent the spread of seizures from one hemisphere to the other in the brain. This procedure is indicated for patients with extreme uncontrollable epilepsy with violent falls and that can cause serious injury in the patient.
Functional hemispherectomy: This is a radical procedure in which one entire hemisphere is disconnected (functional) or removed (anatomical). The patients for this surgery have to be VERY carefully selected because of the complexity of this procedure.
Multiple subpial transection (MST): This procedure is used to help control seizures that begin in areas of the brain that cannot be safely removed. The surgeon makes a series of shallow cuts (transections) in the brain tissue. These cuts interrupt the movement of seizure impulses but do not disturb normal brain activity, leaving the person's abilities intact.
What is epilepsy?
Epilepsy, sometimes referred to as seizure disorder, is a general term that refers to a tendency to have recurrent seizures. A seizure is a temporary disturbance in brain function in which groups of nerve cells in the brain signal abnormally and excessively. Nerve cells or neurons normally produce electrical impulses that act on other nerve cells, muscles, or glands to create awareness, thought, sensations, actions, and control of internal body functions. During a seizure, disturbances of nerve cell activity produce symptoms that vary depending on which part (and how much) of the brain is affected.
How does it work an epilepsy surgery?
Epilepsy surgery involves a neurosurgical procedure where an area of the brain involved in seizures is either resected, disconnected or stimulated. The goal is to eliminate seizures or significantly reduce seizure burden.
What causes epilepsy?
About 30 percent of all cases of epilepsy can be traced to factors such as head injury, infection, conditions such as cerebral palsy, and prenatal damage to the brain. But for the remaining 70 percent, a cause cannot be found. One general explanation is that an imbalance of neurotransmitters - special chemicals in the brain - can cause epilepsy to develop. One category of neurotransmitter that has been specifically identified is gamma-aminobutyric acid, or GABA, and medicines have been developed to balance levels of this chemical. A few types of epilepsy have been traced to a defect in a specific gene, but most of the time, the condition is not inherited.
Microvascular decompression surgery was originally pioneered by Professor Jannetta, who has spent his lifetime in a neurosurgery career exploring various neurovascular compression syndromes.
Microvascular decompression (which consists of placement of small synthetic sponges between the compressing blood vessels and the affected trigeminal nerves) carries a good chance of relieving cranial nerve compression symptoms such as trigeminal neuralgia.
Step 1: prepare the patient
In the OR room, general anesthesia is administered. The body is rolled over on its side and the head is fixed to the bed in the right position fro he surgeon. An area behind your ear is prepped with antiseptic.
A 2-inch lineal skin incision is made behind the ear. The skin and muscles are lifted off the bone and split apart.
A round 1-inch opening is made in the occipital bone with a drill. The bone is removed to expose the protective covering of the brain called the dura. The dura is opened with surgical scissors and folded back to expose the brain.
Retractors placed on the brain gently open a corridor to the trigeminal nerve at its origin with the brainstem. The surgeon exposes the trigeminal nerve and identifies any offending vessel causing compression.
The surgeon places a Teflon sponge pad between the nerve and the vessel. Once the sponge is in place, the retractor is removed and the brain returns to its natural position. The dura is closed with sutures and made watertight with tissue sealant. The bone is put back. The muscles and skin are sutured back together. A soft adhesive dressing is placed over the incision.
What is microvascular decompression (MVD)?
MVD is a surgical procedure to relieve the symptoms (pain, muscle twitching) caused by compression of a nerve by an artery or vein. MVD involves surgically opening the skull (craniotomy) and exposing the nerve at the base of the brainstem to insert a tiny sponge between the compressing vessel and the nerve. This sponge isolates the nerve from the pulsating effect and pressure of the blood vessel.
What happens before surgery?
You will typically undergo tests (e.g., blood test, electrocardiogram, chest X-ray) several days before surgery. In the doctors office you will sign consent forms and complete paperwork to inform the surgeon about your medical history (i.e., allergies, medicines, anesthesia reactions, previous surgeries). Discontinue all non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medicines (Naproxen, Advil, etc.) and blood thinners (Coumadin, aspirin, etc.) 1 week before surgery. Additionally, stop smoking and chewing tobacco before and after surgery because these activities can cause bleeding problems.
Who is a candidate for trigeminal neuralgia surgery?
Surgical evaluation for trigeminal neuralgia includes confirming the diagnosis of trigeminal neuralgia, reviewing a brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan to exclude other treatable causes of face pain, and evaluating the severity of the pain, the general medical condition of the patient, and the patient's preference for treatment goals versus risk aversion.
Trigeminal neuralgia surgery is reserved for people who still experience debilitating pain despite best medical management. Surgery for trigeminal neuralgia should never be attempted on patients with non-trigeminal neuralgia face pain or on atypical trigeminal neuralgia*; operations for these conditions have much lower success rates and in many cases can make the pain worse and/or cause additional medical problems.
Vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty are minimally invasive procedures for vertebral fractures or vertebral compression caused by osteoporosis. These compression fractures may involve the collapse of one or more vertebrae in the spine. Osteoporosis is a disease that results in a loss of normal bone density, mass and strength, leading to a condition in which bones become porous and can break.
What is a Vertebroplasty or Kyphoplasty treatment?
Vertebroplasty and Kyphoplasty are similar type of treatments for compression fractures of the lumbar and thoracic spine column. Compression fractures occur when the bone is weakened because of loss of calcium (osteoporosis) or because of trauma. Compression fractures are like any other broken bone in that they can hurt. By placing cement like material into the vertebral body, we can stabilize the broken bone and take away the pain.
What are some common uses of the procedures?
Vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty are used to treat painful vertebral compression fractures in the spine, most often the result of osteoporosis.
Typically, vertebroplasty is recommended after less invasive treatments, such as bed rest, a back brace or pain medication, have been ineffective, or once medications begin to cause undesired side effects, such as stomach ulcers or changes in mental status. Vertebroplasty can be performed immediately in patients with problematic pain requiring hospitalization or for conditions that limit bed rest and pain medications.
What are the benefits vs. risks?
Vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty can increase a patient's functional abilities, allow return to the previous level of activity without any form of physical therapy or rehabilitation and stabilize the vertebra.
Following vertebroplasty, about 75 percent of patients regain lost mobility and become more active, which helps combat osteoporosis. After the procedure, patients who had been immobile can get out of bed, reducing their risk of pneumonia.
No surgical incision is needed—only a small nick in the skin that does not have to be stitched closed.
Any procedure where the skin is penetrated carries a risk of infection. The chance of infection requiring antibiotic treatment appears to be less than one in 1,000.
Other possible complications include infection, bleeding, increased back pain and neurological symptoms such as numbness or tingling. Paralysis is extremely rare.
There is a risk of allergic reaction to the contrast material used for intraosseous venography or to help visualize the balloon as it inflates on the x-ray image.